Most cells in the body are differentiated cells.
Induced pluripotent stem iPS cells Cells from adult tissues reprogrammed to pluripotency Pluripotent Not patentable i. The primary source of early human stem cells was adult bone marrow, the tissue that makes red and white blood cells.
Since scientists realized that bone marrow was a good source of stem cells, early transplants were initiated in the early 's to treat diseases that involved the immune system genetic immunodeficiencies and cancers of the immune system.
Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy has been extremely successful, with dozens of diseases being treated and cured through the use of these adult stem cells. However, because the donor tissue type must be closely matched to the patient, finding a compatible donor can be problematic.
If you haven't already done so, you should become part of the Bone Marrow Registry. Failures of therapeutic cloning With the advent of animal cloning, scientists had thought that patient-specific human cloning might provide cures without the tissue incompatibility problems usually associated with transplants.
Specific stem cells, developed using clones genetically identical to the patient, would integrate optimally into the patient's body. Although ideal in theory, problems associated with human cloning have been quite formidable. After many years of trying to produce human clones, a South Korean group claimed to have done so in2 followed by a claim that they had produced patient-specific clones.
However, subsequent questions revealed that all the research was fraudulent. Contrary to the original claims, the researchers failed to produce even one clone after over 2, attempts. Although a number of labs are working on producing human clones, none have succeeded - even after several years of additional attempts.
Therefore, these kinds of therapies would only be available to the wealthy, assuming the technical difficulties will eventually be eliminated. Embryonic stem cell research no longer necessary? Three separate groups of researchers showed recently that normal skin cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic state in mice.
Just five months after the mouse study was published, the feat was repeated by two separate laboratories using human skin cells. Shinya Yamanaka, one of the study leaders later commented, "When I saw the embryo, I suddenly realized there was such a small difference between it and my daughters There must be another way.
Yamanaka to pursue a more ethical way to generate human stem cell lines. See the full report.
What diseases might be cured by stem cell research? Stem cells have been promoted as a cure for numerous diseases in the popular press, although the reality of the science suggests otherwise. However, these diseases involve the destruction of islet pancreatic cells by the patient's immune system.
Even if tissue-compatible islet cells can be produced, transplanting them into a patient will be a very temporary cure, since the patient's immune system will attack the transplant in short order. So, a total cure for diabetes might have to involve a total immune compartment replacement with its risksin addition to an islet cell transplant.
Proponents of ESCR cite studies in which embryonic stem cells produce dopamine in the brain of rats.
In addition, it seems that the number of dopamine-producing neurons declined over time, suggesting that the cure might be just temporary. Although they tend be be more versatile than adult stem cells, other sources including umbilical cord stem cells have proven to be just as versatile.
Unless completely differentiated prior to use in patients, these cells will migrate throughout the body to produce tumors. Experiments performed in mice and rats have shown that spontaneous tumor formation is a persistent problem.
Some of these lines have mutated, making them unusable in patients. The use of autologous adult stem cells cells from the patient eliminates the problems with tumorogenesis, mutation, and tissue incompatibility. However, since such individualized therapies could not be patented, the pharmaceutical companies have no financial incentives to pursue such therapies.
In contrast, embryonic stem cell lines could be patented. Since millions of lines would be required to serve all the different tissue types of patients, pharmaceutical companies could charge a fortune for each patented line they produced.
Scientists and research facilities that produced such lines would also reap large financial benefits. The highly favorable financial aspect of embryonic stem cell research is one of the main driving forces behind the push to fund this research.Aug 09, · Embryonic stem cell research, which uses special cells found in three- to five-day-old human embryos to seek cures for a host of chronic diseases, has sparked a major moral and political debate in the United States.
This article first appeared on the Kaiser Health News site.. It wasn’t what President George W. Bush had in mind. In , Bush restricted the use of federal funding for embryonic stem cell. Nov 08, · Scientists largely agree that stem cells may hold a key to the treatment, and even cure, of many serious medical conditions.
But while the use of adult stem cells is widely accepted, many religious groups and others oppose stem cell research involving the . Sometimes it is wrongly said that the Catholic Church opposes stem cell research.
In fact, the Church supports ethically responsible stem cell research, while opposing any research . Built upon a rich legacy of innovative firsts, ESI BIO, is a stem cell research reagent division of BioTime, Inc.
ESI BIO develops and launches research and clinical-grade stem cell reagents, hydrogels, cell lines, small molecules and cell culture media with a focus on stem cell culture, reprogramming, and differentiation. Stem cell research is ongoing at universities, research institutions, and hospitals around the world.
Researchers are currently focusing on finding ways to control how stem cells turn into other.