That is to investigate the causes that lead to the failure of deliverables obtained after the successful completion of projects.
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Abstract Vegetable shito is a novel pepper sauce product developed to cater for the needs of vegetarians. Due to its increasing popularity, it is prudent to assure its safety through the implementation of a quality management system for its production.
This work was aimed at developing and validating a HACCP system for the production of vegetable shito. The HACCP system was successfully developed and validated to ensure that critical limits established for the critical control points were adequate to eliminate identified hazards.
Validation was done through microbial challenge testing, and results obtained indicated that the HACCP plan developed will be effective in controlling and eliminating microbial hazards related to the vegetable shito. With such a quality management system in place, vegetable shito producers would be able to produce shito products which are safe and have a stable shelf life.
Introduction Convenience foods are becoming increasingly popular among food processors and consumers alike due to current changes in lifestyle. As food processors seek to market foods that satisfy the convenience requirements of consumers, it is imperative that the safety and shelf life of those foods are also considered to prevent food-borne illnesses as well as economic losses due to food spoilage.
Shito is one of such convenience foods and is very popular among the Ghanaian populace. It is also exported for more economic gains. It is a sauce which accompanies several Ghanaian dishes like kenkey and waakye.
Vegetable shito is a novel product which has been developed to meet the dietary requirements of vegetarians.
It is a product which is gaining popularity among vegetarian and nonvegetarians as well as export markets. In order to meet export requirements on quality, mandatory food safety and quality assurance standards need to be implemented. In the 30 years since its conception, the HACCP system has grown to become the universally recognized and accepted method for food safety assurance.
The major determinant for the utilization of HACCP as a food safety management tool has been the growing global concerns on food safety by various stakeholders like consumers, food processors, governments, and public health officials.
However, due to lack of technical expertise and adequate scientific information, some companies are unable to develop and implement HACCP [ 1 — 3 ] especially in the developing world [ 4 ]. However, economic benefits from international trading have been promoting food quality assurance programs in domestic manufacturing companies [ 6 ].
Because producers of vegetable shito are currently targeting international markets, they need to have a validated HACCP-based quality management system in place to guarantee the safety of the product.
Validation is very important to check whether the HACCP-based quality management system will make the products safe when put in practice. More specifically, validation is to ensure that the control measures put in place are effective to eliminate, reduce, or prevent any potential hazards in the food product.
Scientific and technical information can be available either through personal communication with scientists or assessing scientific literature and publications [ 7 ]. This work was therefore aimed supporting vegetable shito processors through the development and validation of a HACCP-based quality assurance system for the production of vegetable shito.
Methodology In order to establish a HACCP-based quality assurance program for the production of vegetable shito, five different shito producing companies located in Accra or Tema in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were randomly visited.
Information related to the production processes was collected from these companies. Moreover, the HACCP process is company specific, production process specific, and product specific, implying that a generic HACCP system cannot be developed for two different companies who produce the same products.
The selected shito producing company is a privately owned food processing company located at Tema and has been in operation since It targets the local open market as well as export with USA as the main export destination for its products. The number of employees is twelve, putting it in the medium scale category of companies [ 8 ].
The company has a quality assurance department but no quality manager and therefore the chief operating officer is in charge of quality matters at the company.
It has well-documented procedures and documents covering the fourteen pillars of PRPs. Obtaining Management Commitment Management and owners of the shito producing company provided evidence that they were actually committed to the implementation of the HACCP system in all aspects, from the purchasing of the raw materials through the production process to the final dispatch of the end-product.
Management commitment is crucial for the successful implementation of any quality assurance program [ 9 ] and therefore, management of the shito producing company indicated its readiness to commit to the implementation of the HACCP-based quality assurance system.
Management demonstrated their commitment to the use of high quality raw materials and ensuring good manufacturing practices at the production site. In addition, Management exhibited its readiness for keeping and maintaining a standard production building with respect to facilities and resources available to workers at the plant.
Management also invested in training sessions for personnel at the production site to upgrade their knowledge, skills, and expertise levels regarding HACCP and GMPs.
Management expressed its commitment to ensure that the HACCP system is reviewed twice a year and all documents pertaining to the HACCP system is kept up-to-date and under specific conditions.
Management also committed to organise quality review meetings at least twice a year to assess the current status of the HACCP system and possible revision of the HACCP plan where necessary.
Description of the Product Vegetable shito was described as a spicy smooth dark brown sauce. The principal ingredients are soya bean oil, onions, ginger, tomato paste, pepper, soya bean flour, iodised salt, seasoning, herbs, and spices.
Identification of Intended Use and Consumers Vegetable shito is intended to be used as a ready-to-eat sauce which is best consumed with rice, meats, yam, and so on. It is suitable for vegetarians, ovo-lacto vegetarians, and vegans.
Eating vegetable shito alone in excessive quantities can cause diarrhoea due to the amount of pepper it contains.A controversial charity-leadership group that has blanketed nonprofit workers nationwide with emails soliciting membership for its Board of Governors recently removed the list of governors from its website and suggested it would take legal action against The Chronicle if it published a saved version of the list..
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