The Edwardians The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehensionfor the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium. For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era.
Focussing on the omnipresent power struggles between cultures and the intersection of cultures which results in multiculturalism and poly-valency of culture, Postcolonialism analyses the metaphysical, ethical and political concerns about cultural identity, gender, nationality, race, ethnicity, subjectivity, language and power.
Influenced by the poststructuralist and postmodern idea of decentering, postcolonial literary criticism undermines the universalist claims of literature, identifies colonial sympathies in the canon, and replaces the colonial metanarratives with counter-narratives of resistance, by rewriting history and asserting cultural identities through strategies such as separatism, nativism, cultural syncretism, hybridity, mimicry, active participation and assimilation.
Backed by an anti-essentialist notion of identity and culture, it critiques cultural hierarchies and the Eurocentrism of modernity.
In literature, indigenous people from previously colonised and marginalised countries have increasingly found their voices, attempting to assert their own visions, tell their own stories and reclaim their experiences and histories.
With the objective of locating the modes of representation where Europeans constructed natives in politically prejudiced ways, post colonial criticism intends to unveil such literary figures, themes and representatives that have enforced imperial ideology, colonial domination and continuing Western hegemony.
Postcolonial critics reinterpret and examine the values of literary texts, by focussing on the contexts in which they were produced, and reveal the colonial ideologies that are concealed within. They seek to identify the gaps and fissures within the discourse that provide the native with means of resistance and subversion, and the dissenting colonial with means of articulating opposition.
Key concepts in Postcolonialism Othering: The central theme in postcolonial diasporic literature is the negotiation of two identities — the split consciousness of being both, yet neither completely; the multiple identities or solidarities; or in extreme cases, reassertion of native cultural identity as manifest in cultural fundamentalism.
A major concept formulated by W. Mimicry demonstrates an ambivalent relationship between the colonizer and the colonized. In doing so, he mocks and parodies the colonizer.
Mimicry therefore locates a crack in the certainty of colonial dominance, an uncertainty in its control of the behaviour of the colonized.
Anti-colonial writing of the first phase is thus of the culturalist nationalist variety — embodied in movements like NegritudeAfricanite, and African Aesthetic. These struggles were aimed at liberating themselves at the individual as well as the colonial level, from colonial attitudes and forms of thinking.
Retrieving history for a postcolonial culture invariably includes an intense awareness that native history without colonial contamination is not possible.
The Subaltern Studies project seeks to discover, beneath the layers of colonial historiographythe local resistance to colonialism. It is a history from below, utilizing resources in native languages and non-colonial forms of history-recording such as folksongs, ballads etc.
The postcolonial writers are conscious of their role in nation-building. However, the postcolonial methodologies and epistemologies are almost always mediated and manipulated by Western ones, and the native realizes that the destiny of the postcolony is not as ideal as had been dreamt of earlier.
Literature of postcoloniality that constitutes nationhood emphasizes the modes of constructing, imagining and representing the nation, the role of locality, space, community, religion, Oirituality, cultural identity and the politics of nativism in the making of a national identity.
According to Michael Bantonrace is a concept that has been the basis of discrimination and disempowerment. Race has become a central category in social, political and cultural theory. Issues of race and ethnicity lead to collective, communal identities and have a larger political and social significance.
The race turn has also been instrumental in the development of cultural movements like Black Arts and Harlem Renaissance. Postcolonial gender discourse discusses the double colonization of women by both imperialism and patriarchy.
In postcolonial literature, gender and sexuality have become prominent themes in the last decades of the 20th century. Gender and the role of women in the postcolonial countries have been the focus in the writings of Anita DesaiAma Ata Aidoo.
The domination of the black male in the civil rights movement and the white woman in the feminist propaganda necessitated the emergence of Black Feminism detailing the inextricable connection between sexism and racism.
Neocolonialism is most often achieved not merely through state control by Euro-American powers, but by a nexus between politicians, bankers, generals, and the Chief Executive officers.
International aid and developmental initiatives are very often aligned with economic policy diktats that disable Third World economies. Neocolonialism, therefore, is a more dangerous form of colonialism.Feb 02, · Images Of Women Images of Women: Major Barbara, A Passage to India, and the poetry of T.S.
Eliot The Victorian Era was a difficult and confusing time for women, and their trials are reflected in the literature of the time. The observers within Eliot’s poetry are depersonalised, passionless and unemotional, although conforming to society’s social standards.
After the socially acceptable conventions of “the cups, the marmalade, the tea”, “the porcelain” and “some talk of you and me”, Prufrock is still unable to connect to the woman in any meaningful. A passage to india essay examples an analysis of the poetry of t s eliot and the women in major barbara and a passage to india a comparative analysis of a.
Major barbara by george bernard shaw middlemarch by george eliot (95, 04, 05, 07) middle passage by v s naipaul a passage to india .
Influenced highly by T.S. Eliot (though began writing in the style of Wordsworth and Hardy). Lamented Yeats's death in "In Memory of W.B. Yeats" In the middle part of his life he was influenced by Robert Burns, Dante, William Langland, and Alexander Pope. Women in the Poetry of T.
S. Eliot A Psychoanalytic Approach Tony Pinkney M MACMILLAN Such a foregrounding of the role and tribulations of women in Eliot's work will be the aim of this study, which will also invoke the psychoanalysis of Melanie Klein and D.
W. Winnicott in an. A critical analysis of the history, culture, literature and modes of discourse on the Third World countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean Islands and South America, postcolonialism concerns itself with the study of the colonization (which began as early as the Renaissance), the decolonization (which involves winning back and reconstituting the native cultures), and the neocolonising process.