This only changed with industrial revolution when lignite and hard coal became increasingly more important.
What is claimed is: A nucleic acid construct comprising the isolated polynucleotide of claim 3, and a promoter for directing transcription of said nucleic acid sequence in a host cell.
A method of producing seeds of a crop, comprising: A plant cell comprising the nucleic acid construct of claim 6. A transgenic plant comprising the nucleic acid construct of claim 6.
The method of claim 1, further comprising growing the plant expressing said exogenous polynucleotide under the abiotic stress. The method of claim 1, wherein said abiotic stress is selected from the group consisting of salinity, drought, water deprivation, flood, etiolation, low temperature, high temperature, heavy metal toxicity, anaerobiosis, nutrient deficiency, nutrient excess, atmospheric pollution and UV irradiation.
Provisional Patent Application Nos. The contents of the above applications are all incorporated herein by reference. A common approach to promote plant growth has been, and continues to be, the use of natural as well as synthetic nutrients fertilizers.
Of the three macronutrients provided as main fertilizers [Nitrogen NPhosphate P and Potassium K ], nitrogen is often the rate-limiting element in plant growth and all field crops have a fundamental dependence on inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer.
Nitrogen usually needs to be replenished every year, particularly for cereals, which comprise more than half of the cultivated areas worldwide. Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for the plant, responsible for biosynthesis of amino and nucleic acids, prosthetic groups, plant hormones, plant chemical defenses, etc.
In addition, nitrogen is often the rate-limiting element in plant growth and all field crops have a fundamental dependence on inorganic nitrogen. Thus, nitrogen is translocated to the shoot, where it is stored in the leaves and stalk during the rapid step of plant development and up until flowering.
In corn for example, plants accumulate the bulk of their organic nitrogen during the period of grain germination, and until flowering. Once fertilization of the plant has occurred, grains begin to form and become the main sink of plant nitrogen. The stored nitrogen can be then redistributed from the leaves and stalk that served as storage compartments until grain formation.
Since fertilizer is rapidly depleted from most soil types, it must be supplied to growing crops two or three times during the growing season. In addition, the low nitrogen use efficiency NUE of the main crops e.
Feb 15, · BIOLOGY NOTES: BIOLOGY NOTES biology notes. The effects of salinity on chlorophyll and other fluorophores can be monitored by detecting changes in the color or intensity of pixels, thus providing important information regarding the ionic component of salinity stress (Berger et al., ). The cell growth can also be measured by the nitrogen content that forms the process when is a major constituent of cell. soil and many other materials. The measurement of acid or 45 The measurement of acid or any other product of metabolism shall be measured to assess growth.
Moreover, the over and inefficient use of fertilizers are major factors responsible for environmental problems such as eutrophication of groundwater, lakes, rivers and seas, nitrate pollution in drinking water which can cause methemoglobinemia, phosphate pollution, atmospheric pollution and the like.
However, in spite of the negative impact of fertilizers on the environment, and the limits on fertilizer use, which have been legislated in several countries, the use of fertilizers is expected to increase in order support food and fiber production for rapid population growth on limited land resources.
For example, it has been estimated that bymore than million tons of nitrogenous fertilizer will be used worldwide annually. Increased use efficiency of nitrogen by plants should enable crops to be cultivated with lower fertilizer input, or alternatively to be cultivated on soils of poorer quality and would therefore have significant economic impact in both developed and developing agricultural systems.
Genetic improvement of fertilizer use efficiency FUE in plants can be generated either via traditional breeding or via genetic engineering. Attempts to generate plants with increased FUE have been described in U.
Canadian Journal of Botany The ever-increasing world population and the decreasing availability in arable land for agriculture affect the yield of plants and plant-related products.
The global shortage of water supply, desertification, abiotic stress ABS conditions e. Drought is a gradual phenomenon, which involves periods of abnormally dry weather that persists long enough to produce serious hydrologic imbalances such as crop damage, water supply shortage and increased susceptibility to various diseases.
Salinity, high salt levels, affects one in five hectares of irrigated land. None of the top five food crops, i. Detrimental effects of salt on plants result from both water deficit, which leads to osmotic stress similar to drought stressand the effect of excess sodium ions on critical biochemical processes.The Best Ways to Control the Formation and Effects of Acid Rain.
1, words. 2 pages. A Life and Career of Isaac Newton. words. An Introduction to the Effect of Salinity on Growth and Chlorophyl Content in Representative Classes of Unicellular Marine Algae. words. 1 page. An Analysis of Cloning.
1, words. F07 - Brinkman et al. +.
In my case, I "learned" in elementary school in the sixties that fungi are plants that happen to not have chlorophyl, that protozoans are animals that happen to be single celled, that bacteria are plants because they aren't animals and have to be one or the other, and that the periodic table of elements had +/- .
The cell growth can also be measured by the nitrogen content that forms the process when is a major constituent of cell. soil and many other materials. The measurement of acid or 45 The measurement of acid or any other product of metabolism shall be measured to assess growth.
Effects of salinity stress on growth, chlorophyll content and ion accumulation in two indica rice (Oriza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance Saeed Saeedipour * Introduction Salinity, affecting land, is one of the most serious.
Olisthodiscus and Amphidinium showed a salinity optimum for growth, and the chlorophyll content per cell was also higher at the optimum salinity for growth. Growth of Platymonas and Porphyridium was little influenced by changes in salinity, but the chlorophyll content per cell was affected by changes in salinity.