Background[ edit ] In the years leading up to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, Birmingham had earned a national reputation as a tense, violent and racially segregated city, in which even tentative racial integration of any form was met with violent resistance. Martin Luther King described Birmingham as "probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States". Bombings at black institutions were a regular occurrence: The steps beneath which the bomb was planted can be seen in the foreground Birmingham Campaign and the 16th Street Baptist Church[ edit ] Main article:
Background[ edit ] In the years leading up to the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, Birmingham had earned a national reputation as a tense, violent and racially segregated city, in which even tentative racial integration of any form was met with violent resistance.
Martin Luther King described Birmingham as "probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States". Bombings at black institutions were a regular occurrence: The steps beneath which the bomb was planted can be seen in the foreground Birmingham Campaign and the 16th Street Baptist Church[ edit ] Main article: Birmingham campaign The three-story 16th Street Baptist Church had become a rallying point for civil rights activities through the spring ofand became the location where students who were arrested during the Birmingham campaign's Children's Crusade had been organized and trained by Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC Director of Direct Action, James Bevel.
The church was also used as a meeting-place for other civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. Tensions further escalated when the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Congress on Racial Equality became involved in a campaign to register African-Americans to vote in Birmingham.
Letter birmingham jail passage analysis assignment May 2, more than 1, students, some reportedly as young as eight, opted to leave school and gather at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Demonstrators present were given instructions to march to downtown Birmingham and discuss with the mayor their concerns about racial segregation in Birmingham, then to integrate buildings and businesses currently segregated.
Although this march was met with fierce resistance and criticism, and saw up to arrests on the first day alone, the Birmingham campaign and its Children's Crusade continued until May 5.
These demonstrations led to an agreement, on May 8, between the city's business leaders and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, to integrate public facilities, including schools, in the city within 90 days. The first three schools in Birmingham to become integrated would do so on September 4.
In the weeks following the September 4 integration of public schools, three further bombs had been detonated in Birmingham.
The call was answered by the acting Sunday School secretary: Less than one minute later, the bomb exploded as five children were present within the basement assembly, changing into their choir robes  in preparation for a sermon entitled "A Love That Forgives".
All but one of the church's stained-glass windows were destroyed in the explosion.
The sole stained-glass window largely undamaged in the explosion depicted Christ leading a group of young children.
An estimated 2, black people, many of them hysterical, converged on the scene in the hours following the explosion as the church's pastorthe Reverend John Cross Jr. According to Vann's later testimony, Chambliss was standing "looking down toward the church, like a firebug watching his fire".
Birmingham City Council convened an emergency meeting to propose safety measures for the city, although proposals for a curfew were rejected. Within 24 hours of the bombing, a minimum of five businesses and properties had been firebombed and numerous cars—most of which were driven by whites—had been stoned by rioting youths.
Congress of Racial Equality and members of the All Souls Church march in memory of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing victims on September 22, Although reports of the bombing and the loss of four children's lives were glorified by white supremacists, who in many instances chose to celebrate the loss as "four less niggers ",  as news of the church bombing and the fact that four young girls had been killed in the explosion reached the national and international pressmany felt that they had not taken the civil rights struggle seriously enough.
The day following the bombing, a young white lawyer named Charles Morgan Jr. In this speech, Morgan addressed his audience with a speech in which he lamented: We all did it!
The 'who' is every little individual who talks about the 'niggers' and spreads the seeds of his hate to his neighbor and his son What's it like living in Birmingham? No one ever really has known and no one will until this city becomes part of the United States.
Robinson, aged 16, was shot in the back by a policeman as he fled down an alley,  after ignoring police orders to halt.
The police were reportedly responding to black youths throwing rocks at cars driven by white people. Robinson died before reaching the hospital. Ware, aged 13, was shot in the cheek and chest with a revolver  in a residential suburb 15 miles north of the city.
A year-old white youth named Larry Sims fired the gun given to him by another youth named Michael Farley at Ware, who was sitting on the handlebars of a bicycle ridden by his brother.
Sims and Farley had been riding home from an anti-integration rally which had denounced the church bombing. Sims and Farley were later convicted of second-degree manslaughter,  although the judge suspended their sentences and imposed two years' probation upon each youth.
One week before the bombing, Wallace granted an interview with The New York Timesin which he said he believed Alabama needed a "few first-class funerals" to stop racial integration. Although this donation was accepted,  Martin Luther King Jr. Your irresponsible and misguided actions have created in Birmingham and Alabama the atmosphere that has induced continued violence and now murder.
John's African Methodist Episcopal Church. In attendance were 1, people. At this service, the Reverend C. Thomas addressed the congregation, informing them: Although no city officials attended this service,  present at the girls' funerals were an estimated clergymen of all races.
Also present was Martin Luther King Jr.The Process of Writing - The Process of Writing Throughout my whole life I have been taught to write many different ways and on how I should approach my writing assignments in and outside of class.
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