Poor agricultural practices such as shifting cultivation, lack of crop rotation practices, lack of agricultural technology and land husbandry techniques exacerbate the problem. Livigacontends that the effects of overstocking, which are localized, give rise to serious degradation in places such as Shinyanga and Mbulu where livestock units have exceeded the carrying capacity. This situation is seen as a good indicator of each of capacity for the decentralized institutions at the local level to enforce laws and instruments which are meant to ensure sound environmental management. Improper treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes are the major contributors to urban area pollution.
Arduino 8 An Arduino is a piece of electronic hardware—a single-board microcontroller used to create basic hardware-to-software communication through circuitry control. Developed by a team of inventors led by Massimo Banzi, Arduinos are widely used in computer programming.
As an easy-to-use module, the device can be employed to test basic programming functionality or even operate a small robot.
The Arduino is particularly practical for rapid prototyping. Its design is distributed under the Creative Commons license and low-cost kits are available through a number of organizations. Behavior Change 9 Behavioral change is an ongoing process of replacing the ways we respond to our environment with newly acquired patterns of action.
Behavior standards respond to social norms and needs; in an urban context, certain targeted behavior-al shifts can lead to important changes in urban interaction and design. The key to large-scale urban improvement lies in the majority of the population adopting and maintaining more behaviors that produce small but incremental change for the common good.
These could include more responsible consumption and waste practices and greater conviviality and sharing.
Through his programs, which explored the power of technology in cities, Lab Team member Carlo Ratti argued that sensing and actuating is a powerful transformative process that can lead to behavior change—the first step in large-scale transformation.
Bike Sharing 10 Bicycle-sharing programs provide bikes for rent or temporary use in urban environments. Today, there are bike-sharing programs in cities around the world. Bike-sharing systems typically involve customized bike design, docking stations, and an affordable membership fee to avoid theft and promote financial sustainability.
Bike sharing provides free or low-cost transportation with no emissions. The system was first employed in Amsterdam in when a fleet of bikes was painted white and distributed throughout the city.
Other cities with bike-sharing programs include Berlin with two programs, started in and ParisBarcelonaand Londonamong others.
New York City will be launching one in the spring of In major cities around the world, the programs are typically sponsored by major corporations. Cycling Fast Facts featured a group of biking experts to showcase a crosssection of the Berlin cycling community to discuss the challenges and opportunities of biking in cities.
The Copenhagenize Index was developed in by Copenhagen Consulting as an index for measuring support of urban cycling in cities worldwide. The index measures eighty major cities around the world based on specific criteria including bicycle infrastructure, bike-sharing programs, perception of safety, and politics.
When these needs are met, cities experience an increase in cyclists, which has a positive effect on city livability and infrastructure.1) Informal sector is not just an urban phenomenon, but also a rural one.
2) Trade is a critical portion of the informal sector, and women in the informal sector tend to be here. 3) Household splitting, with some members in the formal sector, some in the informal sector. 21 CHAPTER 1 The Informal Sector: What Is It, Why Do We Care, and How Do We Measure It?
SUMMARY: This chapter seeks to unpack our understanding of the term informality, why we may care about it, and what dynamics may be driving its elements.
The number of phenomena it encompasses and the limitations of its measures. A Glossary of Ideas. Accessibility Design 2. Accessibility design is urban design that takes into account the full spectrum of other-abled (including elderly, disabled, and handicapped) individuals by creating a user-friendly urban and domestic environment.
With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Urban informal sector Nature: The informal sector is generally understood to refer to very small-scale units producing and distributing good and services, involving little or no capital, using a low level of technology and skills and therefore operating at a low level of productivity, and generally yielding very low and irregular incomes.
Environment&Urbanization Vol 8 No 1 April URBAN POVERTY Urban poverty and the informal economy in South Africa’s economic heartland Christian M. Rogerson.