It represented major change from to the period The movement originated in Great Britain and affected everything from industrial manufacturing processes to the daily life of the average citizen. I will discuss the Industrial Revolution and the effects it had on the world as a whole. The primary industry of the time was the textiles industry.
It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. It was characterized by the build out of railroadslarge-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraphuse of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.
It also was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use.
The concept was introduced by Patrick GeddesCities in Evolutionbut David Landes ' use of the term in a essay and in The Unbound Prometheus standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler — However, some continue to express reservations about its use.
Vaclav Smil called the period — "The Age of Synergy " during which most of the great innovations were developed since the inventions and innovations were engineering and science-based. Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads.
Railroads also benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives. This synergy led to the laying of 75, miles of track in the U. Hot blast was the single most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace as it greatly reduced the fuel consumption for making pig iron, and was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution.
The early technique of hot blast used iron for the regenerative heating medium. Iron caused problems with expansion and contraction, which stressed the iron and caused failure.
Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in The Cowper stove was also capable of producing high heat, which resulted in very high throughput of blast furnaces.
The Cowper stove is still used in today's blast furnaces. With the greatly reduced cost of producing pig iron with coke using hot blast, demand grew dramatically and so did the size of blast furnaces.
Air blown through holes in the converter bottom creates a violent reaction in the molten pig iron that oxidizes the excess carbon, converting the pig iron to pure iron or steel, depending on the residual carbon.
The Bessemer processinvented by Sir Henry Bessemerallowed the mass-production of steelincreasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements. The key principle was the removal of excess carbon and other impurities from pig iron by oxidation with air blown through the molten iron.
The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. The "acid" Bessemer process had a serious limitation in that it required relatively scarce hematite ore  which is low in phosphorus.
Sidney Gilchrist Thomas developed a more sophisticated process to eliminate the phosphorus from iron. In America, although non-phosphoric iron largely predominated, an immense interest was taken in the invention.
The next great advance in steel making was the Siemens-Martin process. The furnace operated at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion. Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, but Siemens did not initially use it in that manner.
The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process. Its main advantages were that it did not expose the steel to excessive nitrogen which would cause the steel to become brittleit was easier to control, and that it permitted the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap steel, lowering steel production costs and recycling an otherwise troublesome waste material.
It became the leading steel making process by the early 20th century.
The availability of cheap steel allowed building larger bridges, railroads, skyscrapersand ships. With large amounts of steel it became possible to build much more powerful guns and carriages, tanks, armored fighting vehicles and naval ships.
Rail[ edit ] A rail rolling mill in Donetsk The increase in steel production from the s meant that railroads could finally be made from steel at a competitive cost. Being a much more durable material, steel steadily replaced iron as the standard for railway rail, and due to its greater strength, longer lengths of rails could now be rolled.The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age of Enlightenment" and rightfully so, for Europe had dwelled in the dim glow of the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in men's minds and humankind moved forward.
The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game.
Essay No. Pollution. The word pollution has been derived from the Latin word pollution, which means to make dirty. Pollution is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substances to it.
You will learn about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on living and working conditions, urbanization (the growth of cities), child labor, public health, working class family life, the role of women, the emerging middle class, and .
Even the news was a business. As Americans streamed into cities from small towns and overseas, journalists realized the economic potential.
If half of Boston's citizens would buy a newspaper three times a week, a publisher could become a millionaire.
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Europe Essay examples Words 4 Pages The Industrial Revolution hit Europe and along with it came a great deal of change.