Rationale[ edit ] George Washington —hailed as the father of his country, and as the leader who was "first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen" in eulogy by Maj. Washington was the unchallenged public icon of American military and civic patriotism.
Mount Rushmore before construction, circa Rushmorea prominent New York lawyer, during an expedition in After long negotiations involving a Congressional delegation and President Calvin Coolidgethe project received Congressional approval.
The carving started in and ended in with no fatalities. Following a series of military campaigns from tothe United States asserted control over the area, a claim that is still disputed on the basis of the Treaty of Fort Laramie see section " Controversy " below. InRobinson persuaded sculptor Gutzon Borglum to travel to the Black Hills region to ensure the carving could be accomplished.
Borglum had been involved in sculpting the Confederate Memorial Carvinga massive bas-relief memorial to Confederate leaders on Stone Mountain in Georgiabut was in disagreement with the officials there.
However, Borglum realized that the eroded Needles were too thin to support sculpting. He chose Mount Rushmore, a grander location, partly because it faced southeast and enjoyed maximum exposure to the sun. Borglum said upon seeing Mount Rushmore, "America will march along that skyline.
These presidents were selected by Borglum because of their role in preserving the Republic and expanding its territory. Del Bianco emigrated to the U. Julian Spotts helped with the project by improving its infrastructure. For example, he had the tram upgraded so it could reach the top of Mount Rushmore for the ease of workers.
By July 4,Washington's face had been completed and was dedicated. The face of Thomas Jefferson was dedicated inand the face of Abraham Lincoln was dedicated on September 17, Ina bill was introduced in Congress to add the head of civil-rights leader Susan B. Anthonybut a rider was passed on an appropriations bill requiring federal funds be used to finish only those heads that had already been started at that time.
Borglum had planned to make a secret room behind the hairline of Abraham Lincoln which was supposed to be a doorway to a chamber originally intended to hold some of America's most treasured documents but was left unfinished due to his death.
His son, Lincoln Borglumcontinued the project. Originally, it was planned that the figures would be carved from head to waist,  but insufficient funding forced the carving to end. Borglum had also planned a massive panel in the shape of the Louisiana Purchase commemorating in eight-foot-tall gilded letters the Declaration of IndependenceU.
A word essay giving the history of the United States by Nebraska student William Andrew Burkett was selected as the college-age group winner in a competition, and that essay was placed on the Entablature on a bronze plate in Bush officially dedicated Mount Rushmore.
The panels include the text of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, biographies of the four presidents and Borglum, and the history of the U. The chamber was created as the entrance-way to a planned "Hall of Records"; the vault was installed in Maintenance of the memorial requires mountain climbers to monitor and seal cracks annually.
Due to budget constraints, the memorial is not regularly cleaned to remove lichens. Birds including the turkey vulturebald eaglehawkand meadowlark fly around Mount Rushmore, occasionally making nesting spots in the ledges of the mountain.
Smaller birds, including songbirds, nuthatchesand woodpeckersinhabit the surrounding pine forests. Grizzly Bear Brook and Starling Basin Brook, the two streams in the memorial, support fish such as the longnose dace and the brook trout.
Those living near Mount Rushmore are descendants of a tribe that Canada gifted to Custer State Park inwhich later escaped.
Other trees include the bur oakthe Black Hills spruceand the cottonwood. Nine species of shrubs grow near Mount Rushmore. There is also a wide variety of wildflowers, including especially the snapdragonsunflowerand violet.
Towards higher elevations, plant life becomes sparser. Trees and other plants help to control surface runoff. Dikes, seeps, and springs help to dam up water that is flowing downhill, providing watering spots for animals. In addition, stones like sandstone and limestone help to hold groundwatercreating aquifers.
Large fires are not common. Most events have been ground fires that serve to clear forest debris.
Mount Rushmore is largely composed of granite. The memorial is carved on the northwest margin of the Black Elk Peak granite batholith in the Black Hills of South Dakota, so the geologic formations of the heart of the Black Hills region are also evident at Mount Rushmore.
The batholith magma intruded into the pre-existing mica schist rocks during the Proterozoic1.It’s taken me years to be able to discuss the making of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, partly because I needed to move past it and partly because I had forgotten the process of getting it built.
The Washington Monument The Washington Monument, a memorial structure designed and constructed in the nineteenth century, signifies an important tribute to the prestigious role and achievements of our nation’s founding father. The young child known as the "Plant Doctor" tended his secret garden while observing the day-to-day operations of a 19th century farm.
Nature and nurture ultimately influenced George on his quest for education to becoming a renowned agricultural scientist, educator, and humanitarian. Racism. Every individual on earth has his completing causes; consequently an individual with perfect causes becomes perfect, and another with imperfect causes remains imperfect, as the negro who is able to receive nothing more than the human shape and speech in its least developed form.
The GE-Reagan Foundation Scholarship Program honors the legacy and character of our nation's 40th President by rewarding college-bound students who demonstrate exemplary leadership, drive, integrity, and citizenship with financial assistance to pursue higher education.
The Washington Monument Essay - The Washington Monument The most stunning monument in our capital is the Washington Monument.
At feet high, it is the tallest such monument in the world. It is an obelisk by shape, yet not a true obelisk because it is not carved out of a single stone. The monument was built at intervals between and