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From to the Ottoman conquest The Macedonian era: Its armies regained the initiative against the Arabs in the East, and its missionaries evangelized the Slavsextending Byzantine influence in Russia and the Balkans.
And, despite the rough military character of many of the emperors, there was a renaissance in Byzantine letters and important developments in law and administration. At the same time there were signs of decay: The empire was in theory an elective monarchy with no law of succession.
But the desire to found and perpetuate a dynasty was strong, and it was often encouraged by popular sentiment. This was especially true in relation to the Macedonian dynasty, the founder, Basil Ihaving murdered his way to the throne in But, having acquired the imperial crown, Basil tried to make sure that his family would not lose it and nominated three of his sons as coemperors.
Though he was his least favourite, through the scholarly Leo VIwho succeeded him inthe succession was at least secure. Even the three soldier-emperors Weakness of aristocracy usurped the throne during the Macedonian era were conscious, in varying degrees, that they were protecting the rights of a legitimate heir during a minority: From the initiative lay with the Byzantines.
The struggle with the Arabs, which had long been a struggle for survival, became a mounting offensive that reached its brilliant climax in the 10th century. Its weakest point was in the Taurus Mountains above Syria and Antioch. Basil I directed his operations against this point, recovered Cyprus for a while, and campaigned against the Pauliciansa Christian sect regarded as heretical by the Byzantines and whose anti-imperial propaganda was effective in Anatolia.
But the conflict with Islam was one that concerned the whole empire, in the West as well as in the East, and by sea as well as by land. In the Arabs completed the conquest of Sicily, but they were kept out of the Byzantine province of South Italy, for whose defense Basil I had even made some effort to cooperate with the Western emperor Louis II.
The worst damage, however, was done by Arab pirates who had taken over the island of Crete. In they plundered Thessalonicacarrying off quantities of loot and prisoners. Leo VI sent a naval expedition to Crete inbut the Muslims drove it off and humiliated the Byzantine navy off Chios in It was Curcuas who paved the way for the campaigns of the two soldier-emperors of the next generation.
In Nicephorus Phocasthen domestic commander of the armies in the West, reconquered Crete and destroyed the Arab fleet that had terrorized the Aegean for years; he thereby restored Byzantine naval supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean.
In his strategy achieved unexpected triumphs all along the eastern frontier and culminated in the capture of Aleppo in Syria. When he was proclaimed emperor in MarchNicephorus appointed another Armenian general, John Tzimiscesas domestic of the East, though he retained personal command of operations against the Arabs.
By he had driven them out of Cyprus and was poised for the reconquest of Syria. The revived morale and confidence of Byzantium in the East showed itself in the crusading zeal of Nicephorus Phocas and John Tzimisces for the reconquest of Syria and the Holy Land. The ground lost to Islam in the 7th century was thus fast being regained; and, although Jerusalem was never reached, the important Christian city of Antiochseat of one of the patriarchs, was recaptured in These victories were achieved largely by the new cavalry force built up by Nicephorus Phocas.
In the areas recovered from the Arabs, land was distributed in military holdings with the interests of the cavalry in mind.This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class. Your weaknesses are things about which you feel you are not fully competent, i.e.
you may have little experience in certain areas such as design or working with numbers. You may not be able to travel for the company because of family or other restraints. Some strengths of the aristocracy are that the main in power generally do not waste time in debate and arguing, and chooses those who will "rule the best".
Some weaknesses are that the system leaves little room for other parties to be involved in government if the nobility were to become corrupt. An aristocracy is the rule by a few privileged classes, and may not reflect the wishes of the general public, as they are not allowed to vote.
The leaders in such a government are not accountable for their actions, as there are no checks and balances. Aristocracy is a Greek term meaning "rule of the best." It originated in ancient Greece, where a council of educated leading citizens ruled the rest of the uneducated populace.